L.J. Luotsinen, J.N. Ekblad, T.R. Fitz-Gibbon, C. Houchin, J. Key, M.A. Khan, J. Lyu, J. Nguyen, R. Oleson, G. Stein, S. Vander Weide, V. Trinh, and L. Bölöni

Comparing apples with oranges: evaluating twelve paradigms of agency


Cite as:

L.J. Luotsinen, J.N. Ekblad, T.R. Fitz-Gibbon, C. Houchin, J. Key, M.A. Khan, J. Lyu, J. Nguyen, R. Oleson, G. Stein, S. Vander Weide, V. Trinh, and L. Bölöni. Comparing apples with oranges: evaluating twelve paradigms of agency, pp. 93–112, Springer LNAI, 2007.

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Abstract:

We report on a study in which twelve different paradigms were used to implement agents acting in an environment which borrows elements from artificial life and multi-player strategy games. In choosing the paradigms we strived to maintain a balance between high level, logic based approaches to low level, physics oriented models; between imperative programming, declarative approaches and ``learning from basics'' as well as between anthropomorphic or biologically inspired models on one hand and pragmatic, performance oriented approaches on the other. Instead of strictly numerical comparisons (which can be applied to certain pairs of paradigms, but might be meaningless for others), we had chosen to view each paradigm as a methodology, and compare the design, development and debugging process of implementing the agents in the given paradigm. We found that software engineering techniques could be easily applied to some approaches, while they appeared basically meaningless for other ones. The performance of some agents were easy to predict from the start of the development, for other ones, impossible. The effort required to achieve certain functionality varied widely between the different paradigms. Although far from providing a definitive verdict on the benefits of the different paradigms, our study provided a good insight into what type of conceptual, technical or organizational problems would a development team face depending on their choice of agent jparadigm.

BibTeX:

@inbook{Luotsinen-2007-PROMAS-PostProceedings,
   author = "L.J. Luotsinen and J.N. Ekblad and T.R. Fitz-Gibbon and C. Houchin and J. Key and M.A. Khan and J. Lyu and J. Nguyen and R. Oleson and G. Stein and S. Vander Weide and V. Trinh and L. B{\"o}l{\"o}ni",
   title = "Comparing apples with oranges: evaluating twelve paradigms of agency",
   pages = "93-112",
   booktitle = "LNAI 4411 - Programming Multi-Agent Systems",
   editor = "R.H. Bordini and M. Dastani and J. Dix and A.F. Segrouchni",
   year = "2007",
   publisher = "Springer LNAI",
   abstract = {
      We report on a study in which twelve different paradigms were used to
      implement agents acting in an environment which borrows elements from
      artificial life and multi-player strategy games. In choosing the paradigms
      we strived to maintain a balance between high level, logic based
      approaches to low level, physics oriented models; between imperative
      programming, declarative approaches and ``learning from basics'' as well
      as between anthropomorphic or biologically inspired models on one hand and
      pragmatic, performance oriented approaches on the other.
      Instead of strictly numerical comparisons (which can be applied to certain
      pairs of paradigms, but might be meaningless for others), we had chosen to
      view each paradigm as a methodology, and compare the design, development
      and debugging process of implementing the agents in the given paradigm.
      We found that software engineering techniques could be easily applied to
      some approaches, while they appeared basically meaningless for other ones.
      The performance of some agents were easy to predict from the start of the
      development, for other ones, impossible. The effort required to achieve
      certain functionality varied widely between the different paradigms.
      Although far from providing a definitive verdict on the benefits of the
      different paradigms, our study provided a good insight into what type of
      conceptual, technical or organizational problems would a development team
      face depending on their choice of agent jparadigm.
   },
}

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